Pick 6 (2/27/15)

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Hello friends. Friday=time for our weekly Pick 6! Our Pick 6 consists of 6 informative, insightful reentry & criminal justice-related news articles and commentaries that we’ve been following throughout the week. We welcome your thoughts and feedback, so don’t be shy!

1.) The disappeared: Chicago police detain Americans at abuse-laden ‘black site’ (The Guardian)

In an exclusive, Spencer Ackerman of the Guardian describes the horrific treatment of detainees at a secretive, off-the-books interrogation”black site” known as Homan Square. Homan Square is a “nondescript warehouse,” but it isn’t located at Guantanamo or Abu Ghraib . . . it’s located on the west side of Chicago and is operated by the Chicago Police Department (CPD). Among the alleged atrocities committed by CPD are: keeping arrestees out of official booking databases, shackling and beating arrestees for extended periods of time, denying attorneys access to the “secure facility,” and holding people without legal counsel for between 12 and 24 hours. At least one man was found unresponsive in a Homan Square “interview room” and later pronounced dead.

2.) Free state ID cards proposed for newly released prisoners (Seattle Times)

Not having proper identification can be a major hurdle for newly released prisoners. Identification is required to get housing, to get a job, to cash a check, and even to get a library card. In Washington, getting a new driver’s license or state identification card usually costs between $45-$54 (not to mention, the time and cost of transportation required to get to a Department of Licensing office). Unfortunately, many Washington prisoners are only released with as little as $40. But a new bill, proposed by state legislator, Cyrus Habib, would issue free temporary identification to all reentering individuals as they are released from jail or prison.

3.) Want to visit an inmate? Increasingly, you’ll have to log on (San Fransisco Chronicle)

Hamed Aleaziz reports that several California counties, notably; Napa, Solano, and San Mateo are moving away from allowing prisoners to have in-person visits, and are instead replacing them with Skype-like digital video-chats. Supporters argue that using video-chat technology saves money and strengthens security. Supporters are quick to note that families can now video-chat with their incarcerated loved ones from home, without having to make a trip to jail. But as Bernadette Rabuy of the non-profit Prison Policy Initiative notes, “Inmates and their families find video visits to be more impersonal.They talk about being able to hold their hand on the piece of glass and the other incarcerated person holding their hand up. Moments like that feel impossible with video visits.” A 2011 Minnesota Department of Corrections study concluded in-person prison visits “establish a continuum of social support,” and that visited inmates were 13% less likely to be convicted of a new felony after release. According to Keramet Reiter, an assistant professor of criminology at UC Irvine, “The data is pretty good. The more in-person visits prisoners have, the better off they are likely to be when they get out.” Also problematic is the fact that the video-chats are expensive. The companies providing video-chat technologies for prisons and jails charge families up to $20 for as little as 20 minutes of talk time. These companies then split profits with the county (Napa receives 20% of fees obtained from video chats to its inmates).

4.) Santa Clara County increases oversight of cases of youths being charged as adults (Santa Cruz Sentinel)

California prosecutors have wide discretion in deciding whether to charge juvenile suspects as juveniles or as adults. A 2013 internal review by Santa Clara County’s District Attorney’s Office revealed that a higher percentage of Latino kids face adult charges than other ethnicities. In response to this finding, Santa Clara’s DA has teamed up with Santa Clara’s Public Defender’s office and several Bay Area youth advocacy groups to examine these cases more stringently. Specifically, the DA has asked youth advocates who favor rehabilitation over prison to review and critique the DA’s decision to charge juveniles as adults. The committee of advocates is currently reviewing every 2014 Santa Clara case where a juvenile was charged as an adult.

5.) Eric Holder’s parting shot: It’s too hard to bring civil rights cases (Politico)

Last Saturday (2/21) marked the 50th anniversary of Malcolm X’s assassination. In a recent exit interview, Politico asked outgoing U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder what book he would recommend to a young person coming to Washington, D.C. Holder’s answer–“The Autobiography of Malcolm X.”Holder also stated that before leaves office, he will call for a lower standard of proof for civil rights crimes (see # 6, below). “I think some serious consideration needs to be given to the standard of proof that has to be met before federal involvement is appropriate, and that’s something I am going to be talking about before I leave office.” Holder’s remarks come days after the Department of Justice announced that it has closed its investigation in the shooting death of unarmed African American teenager Trayvon Martin. DOJ will not be filing federal hate-crime charges against Martin’s killer, George Zimmerman.

6.) Why Is It So Hard to Prove a Civil Rights Crime? (The New Republic)

Cristian Farias discusses the U.S. Department of Justice’s decision not file federal hate-crime charges against George Zimmerman and the limits of federal hate crimes laws. Farias writes, “Willfulness, in civil rights cases or otherwise, is by far the most difficult thing to prove in criminal law. And absent a damning confession from Zimmerman or a mountain of circumstantial evidence showing that he harbors resentment toward black teenagers, making that showing is hardso hard, DOJ determined, it couldn’t risk pressing charges and losing later.”

Bonus: Tomorrow, 2/28, marks the end of Black History Month. If you have some spare time this weekend, cozy up with your loved ones and take 2 hours to watch “Freedom Riders,” the beautifully directed, 2010 documentary by Stanley Nelson Jr. “Freedom Riders” is the powerful, harrowing, and inspirational story of six months in 1961 that changed America forever. From May until November 1961, more than 400 black and white Americans risked their lives—and many endured savage beatings and imprisonment—for simply traveling together on buses and trains as they journeyed through the Jim Crow South. The Freedom Riders challenged the status quo by riding interstate buses and trains in the South to challenge local laws or customs that enforced illegal segregation in seating. They called national attention to the blatant disregard for federal laws and the local mob violence used to enforce segregation in the South. You can watch Freedom Riders for free online courtesy of PBS. Here’s a link to the film.

Weekly Pick 6 (2/20/15)

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Hello friends. It’s Friday, so you know what that means…it’s time for our weekly Pick 6! Our Pick 6 consists of 6 informative, insightful reentry & criminal justice-related news articles and commentaries that we’ve been following throughout the week. We always welcome thoughts and feedback, so don’t be shy!

1.) Holder backs death penalty moratorium (Politico)

As John Gerstein reports, Attorney General Eric Holder is endorsing a halt to all executions nationwide while the Supreme Court considers whether some lethal injection methods are unconstitutional. Speaking in a personal capacity on Tuesday, AG Holder stated, “I think fundamental questions about the death penalty need to be asked. And among them, the Supreme Court’s determination as to whether or not lethal injection is consistent with our Constitution is one that ought to occur. From my perspective, I think a moratorium until the Supreme Court made that determination would be appropriate.”

2.) A look at 20 years of shootings by cops (San Diego Union-Tribune)

San Diego County, California’s District Attorney’s Office recently released a report detailing and analyzing police officer-involved shootings that occurred between 1993 and 2012 in San Diego, California’s second most populous county. Over half of the shootings taking place during this 20 year span resulted in death. Nearly half of the shootings happened immediately upon the officer arriving on scene. As Pauline Repard reports,19% of people shot by officers were black, a significantly higher percentage than the County’s overall black population, which is just 4.8%. Of the 367 people shot, 81% had mental heath issues or had drugs in their system. 56% of people shot were were 18-32-years old. From 1993 to 2012, San Diego prosecutors only filed charges against two officers, once in 2005 and once in 2009. Juries found both officers not guilty.

3.) How communities are keeping kids out of crime (Christian Science Monitor)

In this feature, Stacy Teicher Khadaroo takes a look at how Lucas County, Ohio and other state and local governments are at the forefront of a movement to stop incarcerating so many youths. As Khadaroo writes, “Driven by the high cost of incarceration and a growing understanding of adolescent behaviors, states and localities are launching initiatives to provide counseling, drug treatment, and other support for young offenders rather than locking them up. The idea is to save money – and try to keep them from committing more crimes by addressing their problems at the roots.”

4.) Making Overseers into Advocates: A social worker’s take on the misery of probation (The Marshall Project)

In a commentary, Philadelphia social worker, Jeff Deeney, describes life working inside of Philadelphia’s probation office. Deeney describes the probation office as a “gloomy, misery-inducing dump absolutely nobody enjoys coming to, POs or probationers.” Deeney further writes that, “Probationers continually complain about what they feel are probation officers who are abusive, disrespectful, racist or petty power trippers out to wreck your life just to show you they can. Conversely, POs feel underpaid, underappreciated and under constant assault by criminals who would just as soon stab them in the back if they thought they could get away with it . . . Authority and the anti-authoritarian become locked in a bitter embrace that, based on what I’ve seen over the years, is mutually destructive.” Deeney’s takeaway message is that probation offices must be changed from “places of control and enforcement to places of support and encouragement . . . Not just because the studies all show social support reduces recidivism, but because we believe in treating people with dignity and respect.”

5.) Prison banker eliminates fees for money order deposits in Kansas (Center for Public Integrity)

JPay Inc., the biggest provider of money transfers to prisoners, has stopped charging fees to families sending money orders to inmates in Kansas. The change that means inmates’ families can now send money for free in every state where JPay operates (other than holdout Kentucky). JPay is credited with popularizing electronic payments to prisons, while also creating a multi-billion dollar industry (here’s more info. on the prison-industrial complex). Prior to the advent of JPay and similar companies, inmates’ families typically mailed money orders directly to the facility where their relative was locked up.

6.) 50 Years After His Assassination, Malcolm X’s Message Still Calls Us to Seek Justice (The Root)

Malcolm X was assassinated 50 years ago tomorrow (February 21st). Prominent historian, author, and Tufts University Professor, Peniel Joseph takes a look at why, even 50 years after his death, Malcolm X remains one of the most important intellectuals, organizers and revolutionaries that America has ever produced. Professor Joseph writes, “Fifty years after his death, the struggle for black liberation continues with nationwide protests that recall the tumultuous 1960s, when Malcolm’s message of uncompromising struggle frightened white and black political leaders alike. Today’s rising activists, who boldly demand an end to racial and economic injustice beyond token political reforms, are channeling the best part of Malcolm’s legacy—one that, even in the face of death, cries out for justice by any means necessary.”

Bonus: If you have a moment to spare, take some time out of your weekend and listen to one of Malcolm X’s most famous and powerful speeches, “The Ballot or the Bullet,” given on April 3, 1964 in Cleveland, Ohio. A transcript of the speech is available here. And audio of the speech is available here. #BlackLivesMatter

Have a good weekend everyone, and we will see you soon.

Weekly Pick 6 (2/13/15)

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Hello friends. We’re back with the second edition of our new weekly feature–Pick 6. Our Pick 6 consists of 6 informative, insightful reentry & criminal justice-related news articles and commentaries that we’ve been following throughout the week. We welcome your thoughts and feedback, so don’t be shy!

1.) History of Lynchings in the South Documents Nearly 4,000 Names (New York Times)

In this article, Campell Robertson discusses some findings from a newly published report by the Montgomery, Alabama-based Equal Justice Initiative entitled: Lynching in America: Confronting the Legacy of Racial Terror. EJI’s report documents lynching in twelve Southern states from the time of Reconstruction to the end of World War II. The report makes the case that the lynching of African Americans was terrorism and a widely supported phenomenon used to enforce racial subordination and segregation.

2.) Go to Trial: Crash the Justice System (Hands Up United)

Timothy Lynch of the Cato Institute has said, “The truth is that government officials have deliberately engineered the system to assure that the jury trial system established by the Constitution is seldom used.” In this commentary, Michelle Alexander, famed author of, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, argues that one way to end mass incarceration is by “crashing the system.” Alexander writes, “If everyone charged with crimes suddenly exercised his constitutional rights, there would not be enough judges, lawyers or prison cells to deal with the ensuing tsunami of litigation….Such chaos would force mass incarceration to the top of the agenda for politicians and policy makers, leaving them only two viable options: sharply scale back the number of criminal cases filed…or amend the Constitution…Either action would create a crisis and the system would crash.”

3.) High School Police Ask Judge to Let Them Pepper-Spray and Arrest Unruly Students (Mother Jones)

Since 2006, there have been at least 110 instances where school police officers (called School Resource Officers or SROs) have pepper-sprayed school students in Birmingham, Alabama. A lawsuit filed by the Southern Poverty Law Center has brought up the issue of whether such practices are constitutional. Of the policy allowing officers to pepper-spray students, Ebony Howard of the SPLC says, “We want it to be declared unconstitutional because it allows officers to spray people, specifically students, without considering a wide variety of factors—such as whether they are in a school environment, the fact that they are in a closed environment, and the fact that these things that they are accusing kids of doing and acting on are actually just student misconduct issues.” Allie Gross of Mother Jones describes the pepper-spraying of Birmingham students as well as the rise of police presence in schools since the mid-1990s.

Related: be sure to check out R&R’s previous blog entry, “Why the Teacher’s Protection Act is Deadly to Students,” for another example of how, since the 1990s, public school systems have become increasingly militant.

4.) Alameda County: $8.3 million jail death settlement mandates jail health care reforms (Contra Costa Times)

Malaika Fraley of the Contra Costa Times reports that a record-breaking settlement has been reached in the case of an Oakland, California man, Martin Harrison, who died after being beaten to death and tased by Santa Rita Jail deputies. Alameda County’s Board of Supervisors and its jail medical services provider, Corizon Health, have agreed to pay $8.3 to the family of Mr. Harrison. Mr. Harrison died in August of 2010 while incarcerated at Santa Rita, just two days after he was beaten and tased by 10 deputies.

5.) Missouri cities, including Ferguson, sued over ‘grotesque’ jail conditions (Los Angeles Times)

Matt Pierce of the LA Times writes about two recently-filed lawsuits against the cities of Ferguson and Jennings, Missouri. Pierce writes that the lawsuits accuse the cities of “maintaining ‘grotesque’ jail conditions for motorists locked up because they couldn’t pay fines for minor legal infractions . . . crowded cells are smeared with mucus, blood and fecal matter and inmates are denied basic hygiene supplies and medical care.” Ferguson is the city where unarmed African American teenager, Michael Brown, was fatally shot in August 2014.

6.) Gov. Pat McCrory says brothers’ pardon still being reviewed (News and Observer)

Our sixth pick this week is actually an update of a story we told you about last week. Henry McCollum and Leon Brown were recently exonerated or murder after serving three decades in a North Carolina prison following a wrongful conviction. The two brothers were exonerated by the North Carolina Innocence Inquiry Commission. But following their exoneration, McCollum and Brown are left without any ability to collect compensation for the time they spend incarcerated absent a pardon from the state’s governor. North Carolina Governor Pat McCrory’s office is currently “conducting a formal an thorough process that will lead to a recommendation” of whether or not McCollum and Brown should receive a pardon. If the men receive a pardon, they will be eligible to receive $50,000 for every year they spent incarcerated (up to a max of $750,000). McCollum and Brown spent their entire adult lives in prison and have IQ scores in the 50s and 60s. The two men struggle with reading and writing. We will keep you updated on this story.

— The R&R Team

Weekly Pick 6

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Hello friends. Starting today, we will be posting a “Weekly Pick 6” every Friday. Our “Weekly Pick 6” will consist of 6 informative and insightful reentry & criminal justice-related news articles and commentaries that we’ve been following throughout the week. As always, we welcome your thoughts and feedback!

1.) How Public Defenders Struggle With Ethical Blindness (The Sixth Amendment Center)

In an interview with New England Law Professor, Tigran Eldred, David Carroll of The Sixth Amendment Center explores whether psychological factors force public defenders to rationalize sub-par performance in the face of excessive caseloads.

2.) How the Government Put Tens of Thousands of People at Risk of a Deadly Disease (Mother Jones)

In this long-read, David Ferry describes how the California Department of Corrections has regularly placed prisoners at risk of catching a deadly disease known as Valley Fever (coccidioidomycosis). 

3.) The Capital Punishment Cover-up (Slate)

Dahlia Lithwick describes proposed legislation in Virginia that will hide “all information relating to the execution process.” 

4.) Police Reform is Impossible in America (Gawker Justice)

Donovan X. Ramsey argues that America can tackle issues of police reform only once Americans first confront the racism and oppression that have led to a widely held “myth of black criminality.” 

5.) This is How Black Girls End Up in the School-To-Prison Pipeline (The Nation)

Dani McClain uses recent events at a Baltimore, MD middle school as an example of how “harsh, apparently unwarranted” school discipline influenced by implicit biases have led to a staggeringly disproportional rate of African American girls being suspended from school and thrown into the criminal justice system. 

6.) For Henry McCollum and Leon Brown, freedom has a cost (News & Observer)

Henry McCollum and Leon Brown were wrongfully convicted or rape and murder. After three decades in prison, the two men were exonerated by the North Carolina Innocence Inquiry Commission. But as this article explains, their struggle is not over. Absent a pardon from the Governor, these men are left without any ability to collect compensation for the decades they spent incarcerated. 

Why the Teacher’s Protection Act is Deadly to Students

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This blog was written by R&R’s Spring Legal Fellow Dominik Taylor. He will be writing more articles about issues of criminal justice over the next few months. In May 2015, Dominik will be leaving us to begin a two-year Fellowship with the incredible Equal Justice Initiative in Montgomery, Alabama.

In Texas, teachers are permitted to carry guns in the classroom. This has been the case since 2012, when, in the wake of the Sandy Hook Elementary shootings, Texas passed a law allowing for school employees to carry firearms on campus.[1] But the recently proposed Texas H.B. 868, entitled the Teacher’s Protection Act,[2] would go one step further and allow Texas teachers to use deadly force to kill a “threating” student.[3] H.B. 868, proposed by Rep Dan Flynn (R), would provide educators with civil immunity and “a defense to prosecution” should they use force or deadly force to protect themselves, students of their school, or even school property.[4] If enacted, H.B. 868, could lead to a variety of frightening consequences (i.e. sending the message that school property is more valuable than the lives of the school’s students). Given the biases and prejudices of the world we live in, the existence of “zero tolerance” policies in many schools across the country, combined with the chances of human error, this bill could prove deadly for students, especially students of color.

What are the different factors that could come together to prove deadly here?

(1) The school to prison-pipeline.

The school-to-prison pipeline refers to policies and practices that push schoolchildren—especially poor students of color—out of the classroom and into the juvenile and criminal justice system.[5] Underfunded and underperforming schools who face budget cuts,[6] the pressure of standardized testing,[7] and public concern following several highly-publicized school shootings,[8] have resorted to “zero-tolerance polices” that automatically impose severe punishment regardless of the circumstances. A 2014 study from the Department of Education observed that black students are expelled at a rate three times higher than that of white students.[9] Black students account for 46% of students suspended more than one time.[10] While black students only represent 16% of students enrolled in American public schools, they represent 27% of students referred to law enforcement, and 31% of students subjected to school-related arrests.[11] According to the American Academy of Pediatrics and the ACLU, “Overly harsh disciplinary policies push students down the pipeline and into the juvenile justice system. Suspended and expelled children are often left unsupervised and without constructive activities; they also can easily fall behind in their coursework, leading to a greater likelihood of disengagement and drop-outs. All of these factors increase the likelihood of court involvement.”[12]

(2) Zero Tolerance Policies

Students of color are disproportionately impacted by zero-tolerance policies, policies that dictate that schools expel any student who is perceived to cause trouble. The result of these policies is that these “troubled students”—disproportionately students of color (more on that below)—are sent straight into the criminal justice system—so that they are no longer a burden to the school. This happens every day in our country, even though many intermediary and more holistic steps could be taken to help these students.[13]

(3) Implicit Bias

“Implicit bias” is defined as the mental process that causes us to have negative feelings and attitudes about people based off characteristic like, race, ethnicity, age, and appearance.[14] As noted by Ohio State University’s Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity, “In the general population, implicit racial bias often supports the stereotypical caricature of Black youth—especially males—as irresponsible, dishonest, and dangerous. In an ideal world, teachers and school administrators would be immune to these unconscious negative attitudes and predispositions about race. But, of course, they are not.”[15]

(4) H.B. 868.

Back to H.B. 868. When you take this bill, allowing for the use of deadly force and leaving much to a teacher’s discretion, and combine it with zero tolerance policies and implicit bias, it is clear that it puts students of color at risk of punishment by physical violence or death. Instead of school-to-prison pipeline, you might see one that is school-to-grave.

To demonstrate the devastating, and potentially deadly, consequences that H.B. 868 would have if enacted, let’s consider the recent vandalism of a Texas high school. On the evening of September 6, 2014, Lake Travis High, in Lake Travis, Texas was vandalized.[16] According to the local news, offensive words and pictures were spray-painted on the school’s entrance and windows were broken.[17] At the time of the vandalism, the Lake Travis High administration believed the culprits to be “two young men and a young woman.”[18]

Now, if H.B. 868 was the law on September 6, 2014, then one of Travis High’s teachers would legally be allowed to use reasonable force to defend the school from vandalism.

Picture this: a teacher is working late grading tests, when he looks out the window of his classroom. The teacher witnesses three teenagers (likely high school students) standing outside a school window. One of the teens throws something through the window and shatters it. If H.B. 868, were the law, it would allow that teacher to approach the teens and use reasonable force to protect the school’s property (i.e. to prevent the teens from breaking a school window).

Now picture this: the teacher decides to go outside to approach the teens. As the teacher gets closer, he notices that the teens are each carrying long, dark objects in their hands. The teacher is carrying a concealed firearm, as he is allowed to do under Texas law. But the teacher still feels threatened because he is outnumbered and the kids are holding dark objects.

As the teacher approaches, one of the teens holds up the dark object. The teacher then reaches for his firearm and fatally shoots the teen. As the shot teen lays on the ground, the other two teens run away. The teacher approaches the first kid, who is now lying on the ground, shot and dying. It is then that the teacher realizes that the dark object that the kid was holding was a can of spray paint. Would H.B. 868 grant the teacher a valid legal defense to shooting and killing a kid who was armed with a can of spray paint? The answer certainly appears to be “yes.”

What’s most ironic (or maybe not ironic at all), is that support for zero-tolerance policies largely stems from the passage of the Gun Free Schools Act of 1994, a piece of federal legislation that mandated that schools expel any students found with firearms, or lose federal funding.[19] The Gun Free Schools Act was designed to decrease violence in schools. But through the proliferation of zero-tolerance policies and the silent yet damning effects of unrecognized implicit bias,[20] and now H.B. 868, Texas schoolchildren—particularly students of color—still face the spectre of gun violence. Only now it’s teachers carrying the guns. And those teachers may soon have a statutory legal defense and civil immunity from punishment or liability for killing a student.

[1] http://www.wsj.com/articles/more-texas-schools-allow-armed-employees1408986620 (paywall)

[2] http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2015/01/texas-teachers-could-be-allowed-to-gun-down-students-to-protect-school-property/

[3] http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:BEJae18IIr8J:ftp://ftp.legis.state.tx.us/bills/84R/billtext/html/house_bills/HB00800_HB00899/HB00868I.htm&hl=en&gl=us&strip=1

[4] http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:BEJae18IIr8J:ftp://ftp.legis.state.tx.us/bills/84R/billtext/html/house_bills/HB00800_HB00899/HB00868I.htm&hl=en&gl=us&strip=1

[5] https://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/what-school-prison-pipeline

[6] http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/26/texas-budget_n_3340949.html

[7] http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2015/02/texas-cant-change-the-nature-of-math-fox-guest-destroys-gov-abbott-for-rejecting-common-core/

[8] http://abc13.com/archive/8498652/

[9] http://ocrdata.ed.gov/Downloads/CRDC-School-Discipline-Snapshot.pdf

[10] http://www.tolerance.org/magazine/number-43-spring-2013/school-to-prison

[11] http://ocrdata.ed.gov/Downloads/CRDC-School-Discipline-Snapshot.pdf

[12] https://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/what-school-prison-pipeline citing http://www.otlcampaign.org/sites/default/files/resources/american-academy-pediatrics-suspensions-policy-statement.pdf

[13] http://kirwaninstitute.osu.edu/racial-disproportionality-in-school-discipline-implicit-bias-is-heavily-implicated/

[14] http://kirwaninstitute.osu.edu/racial-disproportionality-in-school-discipline-implicit-bias-is-heavily-implicated/

[15] http://kirwaninstitute.osu.edu/racial-disproportionality-in-school-discipline-implicit-bias-is-heavily-implicated/

[16] http://kxan.com/2014/09/08/vandals-strike-lake-travis-high-school-again/

[17] http://kxan.com/2014/09/08/vandals-strike-lake-travis-high-school-again/

[18] http://kxan.com/2014/09/08/vandals-strike-lake-travis-high-school-again/

[19] http://www.nbcnews.com/news/education/school-spirit-or-gang-signs-zero-tolerance-comes-under-fire-n41431

[20] http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/11/science-of-racism-prejudice